Posted: 2017-12-07 14:18
Following the herd - ''Following the herd'' is a Thaler and Sunstein ''nudge'' which basically means conforming to a group view or behaviour/behavior. This may be due to the need to be affirmed/validated to feel powerful (strength in numbers), or the attraction of being part of mob rule. There are other causes, and this is a very significant heuristic in group and societal behaviour. It relates to the spotlight effect.
חברת ואלנס המציאה את טכנולוגיית HDBaseT , המאפשרת להפיץ שידורי תקשורת ומולטימדיה באיכות גבוהה (HD) בתוך הבית או המבנה הארגוני באמצעות כבלי תקשורת זולים עד לטווח של 655 מטר. הטכנולוגיה חוסכת את הצורך להשתמש בטכנולוגיות דחיסה או בתשתיות יקרות. הפתרון מבוסס על שימוש בשבב משדר ובשבב מקלט המאפשרים העברה בכבל יחיד של כל מקורות המידע: אבזרים צרכניים, מחשבים ומכשירי טלוויזיה, מערכות אודיו-וידאו, תקשורת אינטרנט ועוד. כולל העברת כוח בכבלים בהספק של עד 655Watts.
&ldquo With time, your body gets acclimated to the effects of the drugs. You override acclimation by taking more,&rdquo explains Healey. &ldquo That&rsquo s the vicious cycle, and depending on how long you use it, it is the exact same drug effect that&rsquo s used with anesthesia. It&rsquo s how you cannot feel pain from a knife slicing you open during surgery, but you keep breathing while the operation goes on. Opioids cause respiratory depression. We don&rsquo t think about breathing on a day-to-day basis, but the number one cause of death in opioid use is respiratory depression. It causes your breathing to stop. It puts the back of your brain to sleep and literally puts your breathing to sleep.&rdquo
Mindlessness - ''Mindlessness'' is a Thaler-Sunstein nudge which equates to negligence, avoidance, not concentrating, etc. When people make mistakes called ''human weakness'' this is often ''mindlessness''. The effect may be prompted or increased when the brain is ''tricked'' by some sort of illusion or technique of semiotics. Where communications/interventions are poorly designed, mindlessness can be a major factor in large group-wide poor ''thinking'' (not actually thinking properly) and poor decision-making (especially deciding to do nothing, or not realising that a decision should be made).
Positioning - ''Positioning'' - is a supplementary heuristic or ''nudge'' which refers to the location or relocation of anything which influences people''s thinking or behaviour, for example the site of a notice-board, or a litter-bin, or the layout of headings on a poster or document or webpage. Thaler and Sunstein refer to the effects of positioning but do not categorize it as a specific heuristic or ''nudge''. In this article a ''supplementary'' or ''additional'' nudge/heuristic is one which Thaler and Sunstein do not specifically categorize and name as such, although they may refer to its effects and existence to or degree or another.
Conforming - An alternative term for the ''following the herd'' heuristic, and separately a general tendency for people to prefer to adhere to norms rather then stand alone. Conforming is a survival instinct because it aligns oneself with a group, avoiding confrontation and risk. Conforming also produces mutual feelings of affirmation, and a feeling of safety through strength in numbers. It''s an enormously significant aspect of human/group behaviour/behavior, without which there could be no wars, no religion, fashion industry, football fans, etc.
Later in this article (see the Likeability/Credibility/Trust influence below) you will see that this ''unofficial and unspoken'' philosophical aspect of Nudge theory can be a major reason for difficulties in applying Nudge theory successfully - and if we consider how people usually regard politicians, governments, corporations then it is easy to imagine that this factor can be hugely influential on people''s reactions to ''nudges''.
When people mismanage their household budgets by spending too much of their monthly salary in the first couple of weeks of the month, this is typically due to the optimism heuristic. They hope their money will last, and fail to check account balances, rather than budgeting and controlling expenditure. This for many people becomes a lifelong repeating cycle of failing to balance their outgoings and incomes. Optimism then influences many people''s decisions to seek and commit to punitively expensive loans.
Fear - ''Fear'' is a supplementary heuristic/nudge that is frequently referenced by Thaler and Sunstein, but never actually defined or categorized as a heuristic or ''nudge'', aside from being a factor within other named heuristics, notably loss aversion. Obviously fear can be a substantial influence on thinking and decision-making, and it is often exploited cynically and unethically by people and organizations seeking to control others. Fear is however a helpful heuristic in many situations, for example in guiding people''s thinking and decisions in relation to fast-moving traffic, stormy seas, bad-smelling food, guns, knives, etc. So fear is also used in shifting group behaviours for example persuading people that tobacco smoke and obesity can be dangerous to health, etc. If not abused, the fear heuristic/nudge can certainly be potentially very helpful.
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Self-control strategies - ''Self-control strategies'' is a Thaler-Sunstein ''nudge'' which refers to the many routines and habits that people develop to counter their known or perceived weaknesses. Common examples are seen in the ways that people manage money, and devise quirky methods to save, budget, and transfer money (from various accounts, jars and pots, savings funds, etc). A different example is the tendency for many people to put alarm clocks out of reach (because they know they have a temptation to switch them off and go back to sleep). These unnatural routines become part of the reality that influence thinking and decisions in response to communications and interventions.
Whatever the causes of conformity it''s immensely powerful and potentially lethal too. All wars are based on soldiers and populations conforming. (This is not the same as following orders it''s actually willingly doing as others do, following virtually without question, what a big crowd of fellow humans are doing). Sports and music fan-bases would not exist without the human heuristic of conforming. Nor would Facebook or Google or Twitter exist without human conformity. Nor would there be a fashion industry, or strongly branded merchandise, were it not for the human urge to conform.
6. The first half offers very clear and entertaining explanation, supported by research and survey statistics, etc., of human decision-making, which the authors contend to be generally illogical, weak, harmful, and often self-destructive. Most of this explanation is underpinned by previous studies and scientific theory concerning ''heuristics'' , which in the authors'' context of human decision-making refers to the tendency for humans to think instinctively, emotionally, and subjectively, rather than logically, rationally and objectively. The authors list several types of heuristic tendencies in people, which equate to ''Nudges'', on the basis that ''heuristics'' are fundamental drivers of decisions.
The ''Optimism'' tendency is also responsible for people finding themselves in awkward embarrassing positions when misjudgments have been made, compounded by reluctance or denial in accepting that corrective action is necessary, causing situations to go from bad to worse. As with other heuristic failings, blame can soon emerge. "Someone should have told me." is a common reaction to problems arising from this heuristic. A useful approach for preventing or countering the risks of the ''optimism/over-confidence'' heuristic is designing ''feedback'' (covered below) into processes and choices offered to people.
If you take Oxycodone , Percoset , or Fentanyl drugs all classified as opioid pain killers the experience is &ldquo identical to taking heroin,&rdquo according to Andrew Kolodny, ., founder of Physicians for Responsible Opioid Prescribing , and a senior scientist at the Brandeis Heller School for Social Policy and Management. And that&rsquo s just what hundreds of thousands of Americans are doing every day legally. They are taking a pain-killer that is addictive and that can potentially harm them if they find they can&rsquo t live without it.
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(A pompous king is persuaded by mischievous tailors that a ''magnificent'' expensive suit they have produced for him can only be seen by clever people, when in fact there is no suit at all, so the king is in fact naked. The king, his courtiers, and crowds, are all tricked into agreeing that the king''s suit is wondrous, even though the king is naked, because each person does not dare to appear to be stupid - except eventually a small boy, unaware of the tailors'' claims, who exposes the sham.)
Most people would naturally do this when asked a question such as the cost of something that''s completely new to them. Or the time it takes to complete a task in which they have no knowledge. Similarly when people are required to answer a quantitive question, such as the height of the Empire State Building, or the population of a city, they tend first to establish internally an ''anchor'' reference (another building or city whose scale they know), and then they adjust this amount until they feel comfortable with their guess for the unknown answer.
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Ähnlich arbeitet Software in einem ganz anderen Bereich: Das 7558 in Israel gegründete Unternehmen Briefcam erstellt mit seiner App eine Zusammenfassung von stundenlangem Videomaterial aus dem Bereich der Überwachungstechnik. Dabei wird nach Objekten, Ereignissen und Aktivitäten unterschieden. Aus dem zweistündigen Überwachungsvideo einer belebten Straße mit viel Autoverkehr entsteht auf Knopfdruck eine 5-Minuten-Synopse, die es zum Beispiel erlaubt, die Fahrt eines einzelnen Autos herauszugreifen, die vorbeifahrenden Autos nach ihrer Farbe, Fahrtrichtung oder Größe zu sortieren.